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Photographs of Roger Fenton. Exhibition in the Library of Eötvös Loránd University. Budapest, 2008.





Júlia Papp
Twelve Original Photographs by Roger Fenton in the University Library of Budapest
Twelve Original Photographs by Roger Fenton. University Library of Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary. 19 November 2008 – 31 January 2009.
During a recent reorganisation of the collection of old prints held by the University Library of Budapest (Hungary), a dozen photographs by Roger Fenton, one of the pioneers of photography, came to light. In the 1850s Fenton took the new technology of wet-plate photography to high levels of artistic achievement and public visibility. In that decade he was the pre-eminent landscape and architectural photographer in England and a founding member of the Royal Photographic Society. His photography was many-sided: he made reproductions of collections in the British Museum, took portraits of the Royal Family at Windsor and at their country seat in Scotland and went to the Crimea to record a controversial war. Fenton brought a painter’s eye to the new medium, enthusiastically exploiting the new methods as they evolved. Most recently, a major exhibition of his work visited the U.S. and London between 2004 and 2006.[1]
Roger Fenton
Fenton was born on 20 March 1819 in Heywood, Lancashire, the fourth of seven children by his father's first marriage. His father, the son of a wealthy cotton manufacturer, was a banker and member of Parliament, and had ten more children by his second wife. After taking a degree in arts at University College London in 1840, Fenton went on to study law, though he only qualified as a solicitor in 1847, no doubt because he had meanwhile become interested in learning to be a painter, studying at least part of the time in Paris. He managed to get paintings accepted for several of the annual exhibitions at the Royal Academy, London, around the turn of the 1840s into the ’50s, but his real successes were to come through his photography. Impressed by the photography on display at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Fenton embarked on a study of the technique. He went to Paris and studied at the studio of Gustave Le Gray (1820-84), and became involved in the world’s first photographic society, the Société Héliographique. In 1852, he journeyed to Russia with the engineer Charles Blacker Vignoles. He photographed the bridge over the River Dnieper that Vignoles had designed, as well as sights in Kiev, Moscow and St Petersburg. In the same year, he showed over forty of his photographs – some taken in Russia along with views of the countryside and architecture around Britain – at an exhibition put on by the Society of Arts in London. A larger series (twenty-three in all) of the Russian pictures were also featured at the Photographic Institution’s 1853 show in London.
     It was in 1853 that Fenton became one of the founding members of the Royal Photographic Society.[2] As secretary, he guided Albert, the Prince Consort, round the Society’s first exhibition, put on in London in 1854. Afterwards Fenton became a regular visitor to the royal family not just at Windsor Castle but at Balmoral in Scotland where they spent their summers. Appointed the first court photographer, he made many portraits of the royal family. Alongside these official pictures he also captured many informal scenes of their private lives.
     Fenton worked with photographic equipment of the highest quality, and presumably this, along with his training in art, explains his appointment by the British Museum in the summer of 1852 as their first official photographer. The photographic recording of objects in their holdings was part of the transforming of what was essentially a grand collection of curiosities into an institution of modern learning. The engagement of Fenton signalled that photography was gaining a role in cataloguing and documenting museums and art.[3]
     In 1855, armed with a letter of recommendation from the Prince Consort and with the financial backing of the Manchester publisher Thomas Agnew, Fenton set off by steamship to the Crimean Peninsula, where Great Britain, in alliance with France and the Ottoman Empire, was at war with Russia. In the course of the Crimean War (1853-56), under arduous conditions, he produced some 360 glass negative plates, including portraits of common soldiers and officers, scenes of military life and views of battlefields. The most famous of the latter is probably Valley of the Shadow of Death (1855), in which the bleak emptiness of the cannonball-strewn valley (the location of Tennyson's "Charge of the Light Brigade") evocatively gives a sense of the cruelty of war. Eventually becoming a metaphor for the Crimean War as a whole, this picture is of the gully that was kept under heavy artillery fire by the Russians and thus was named by the troops after verse 4 of Psalm 23 (“Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil…”). Indeed, while he was photographing the valley, a cannonball slammed into the ground not far from him. These photographs of the Crimean War reached a wide public in England, and were viewed by the French imperial couple as well as by Victoria and Albert.
     In the second half of the 1850s, Fenton struck up a working relationship with Paul Pretsch (1808-73), an Austrian pioneer of photogravure who from 1850 headed the photography section of the Austrian state press and whose photos of Schönbrunn Castle had won a prize at the 1851 Great Exhibition in London. In 1854 Pretsch moved to London and, engaging Fenton’s assistance, employed the photo-galvanographic technique that he had patented in Vienna to publish the large-format album Photographic Art Treasures, which was the first commercial publication venture (sadly, the venture failed) in which the photographic plates were printed by the purely mechanical process of photogravure. It is an indication of how closely the two worked together that the majority of the photo-galvanographs in the book were produced from Fenton’s photographs.[4] Pretsch also drew on Fenton’s work to popularise art. They made reproductions of works such as Dürer’s studies of horses and a cuneiform  stone in the British Museum.[5]
     Fenton was by then thoroughly at home taking photographs of natural vistas and architectural monuments. He made a host of photographs of the countryside of North Wales and southern Scotland, as well as of the cathedrals (Ely, Lincoln, Peterborough, York), abbeys, universities (St. John’s College, Oxford, Stonyhurst College)  and castles (Helmsley Castle, Yorkshire, Beaumarais Castle, Wales) in England. He hit on a new subject in 1858. In his London studio, he produced a series of studies of male and female figures – friends, acquaintances, models, even himself in a few instances – dressed in Muslim-style costumes and placed in “Oriental” settings. With these genre pictures, which are clearly akin, both thematically and formally, to the paintings of Delacroix and Ingres, Fenton was aiming, just as much as with his still-life photography, his romantic depictions of landscape or picturesque studies of clouds, to elevate the new medium to the rank of art.
     Another aspect of Fenton’s activity is to be seen in the Stereoscopic Magazine, which appeared in England between 1858 and 1865. The periodical issued stereoscopic pairs of pictures with explanatory texts and aimed to present subjects of interest from nature, the arts and the sciences. Among these were stereoscopes taken by Fenton of objects in the British Museum, of English landscapes, of buildings and still lifes of flowers and fruit. In the latter he sought to achieve a painterly impression and a sense of materiality – work that displays influences of seventeenth-century Dutch painting.
     Fenton was travelling again in England during 1860-61, photographing cathedrals, ruins and country houses, but towards the end of 1862 he abandoned photography completely. He was no doubt spurred to do so by the changes that had taken place in how the medium was regarded and the subsequent drop in its social prestige. By the end of the 1850s it was less and less the preserve of gentlemen amateurs and was becoming a means of earning a livelihood. Fenton might have now seen the law as an occupation far more compatible with his social status than photography.
Photographs by Roger Fenton in the University Library
     Although the set of photographs held by the University Library of Eötvös Loránd University covers several genres and subjects, with architectural representations, landscapes, group portraits and even Orientalising images, ten of the twelve pictures in question seem to constitute a unit in that they are on Scottish topographical subjects – scenery, buildings, people. We assume they were taken by Fenton during his tour of Scotland in September of 1856 because one of the photographs has the inscription (“R. Fenton 1856”).
            Seven of these ten are identifiably records of Balmoral Castle and its environs, the beauty of which came to Queen Victoria’s notice during her first visit to Scotland in 1842. Situated in the Highlands, on the right bank of the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, the fifteenth-century castle and its huge estate were acquired from Sir Robert Gordon by the Prince Consort in 1852, who had a modern residence built that was more suited to the royal family’s needs. Three of the Fenton photographs in the Library’s possession show the recently completed castle. Another four are of royal huntsmen in a sunlit woodland clearing. One  features a hunter dressed formally, in kilt, and the other three five huntsmen in different group takes. Fenton made several photographs of this location. The stone lying in the forest clearing, appearing in all four Budapest photographs, is the seat of a hunter on a photograph of Bradford Museum[6]
     One of the photographs is a shot of the Braemar Gathering, an assembly held not far from Balmoral, the origins of which are believed to have been a visit paid there by King Malcolm Canmore (King Malcolm the Great Chief) in the eleventh century. Since medieval days, it was customary for clan chiefs to gather their followers in the autumn, when the deer were fat, for a hunt lasting for several days. Competitions would also be held to select the strongest, the fleetest, and the most skilful warriors. The tradition was revived in 1832, since when the Gathering has been held by the Braemar Highland Society (Royal from 1866 on).
            A signed Scottish landscape showing a bend in the River Dee, which runs behind the marked contours of the foreground and is closed off behind by a range of hills, evidently belongs to the photographer’s examination of photographic space. (Fenton’s own contemporaries remarked on the particular sensitivity and talent that he had for capturing landscapes.) Another shot is of the bridge in the village of Castleton, close to Braemar, which portrays the romantic, almost extravagantly wild countryside in classically composed harmony. At the geometrical centre of the picture we see the graceful arch of the old stone bridge over the stream, with hills in the background and a rocky bank in the foreground. Fenton took several shots of Castleton Bridge. The albumin photograph in the collection of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, made by Francis Frith around 1868 of Fenton’s negative put on auction in 1862, shows the stone bridge from the same angle as the one in Budapest, but the persons in the foreground are different. The three anglers portrayed on the Budapest picture appear on the other side of the stream in the Boston photograph.[7]
     Two of the photographs in the collection – one showing a woman in white carrying water, the other a turbaned man in Eastern garb – clearly belong to Fenton’s Orientalising period around 1858. The man’s clothing appears to be more authentically Turkish; the honest, un-posed picture strikes one as being a study of costume rather than a genre picture. The representation of the woman holding the pitcher, by contrast, is more mannered, the affectation being reinforced by the rugs on the ground and various Eastern objects such as hookahs and crockery. On the basis of other known photographs by Fenton, the bearded turbaned man can be identified as Frank Dillon, the English landscapist. A friend of his, Dillon appears in many of the pictures in the Orientalist series, the best-known being one entitled Pasha and the Bayadere, in which he is the Turkish musician playing for the dancing girl and is seated next to Fenton, who is posing as the pasha.
     The provenance of the photographs by Fenton that were discovered in the University Library of Budapest – whether by purchase or gift or by bequest – remains unclear, at least for the time being. The importance of the discovery is enhanced not only by the fact that there are no pictures by Fenton in any other publicly accessible collection in Hungary but also because five of the Budapest pictures – two of the Balmoral hunting scenes and three Scottish landscapes – have not hitherto to light in public collections anywhere else.
  1. Gillies at Balmoral. Page size: 50 x 68, 5 cm, Picture size: 35 x 42. 5 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 1. On carrier sheet: Photographed by R. Fenton. Bottom, right, in pencil: H. No. 68.
  2. Gillies at Balmoral. Page size: 50 x 70 cm, Photograph size: 32.5 x 43 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 2. Marked, bottom right: R. Fenton. 1856. On carrier sheet, in pencil, bottom, right: H. No. 69.
  3. Gillies at Balmoral. Page size: 50 x 69 cm, Photograph size: 31 x 41 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 3. On carrier sheet in pencil bottom, right: H. No. 68.
  4. Untitled [Scottish huntsman in Balmoral] Page size: 69 x 50 cm, Photograph size: 37.5 x 33 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 4. On carrier sheet: Photographed by R. Fenton. 1856. Bottom, right in pencil: H. No. 70.
  5. Balmoral from the South. (Balmoral from the South) Page size: 50 x 69 cm, Photograph size: 26.5 x 41.5 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 5. Marked, bottom, right: R. Fenton. On carrier sheet, in pencil, bottom, right: H. No. 65.
  6. Balmoral from the South. (Balmoral from the South) Page size: 50 x 69 cm, Photograph size: 26.5 x 41.5 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 6. Marked, bottom, right: R. Fenton. On carrier sheet in pencil bottom, right: H. No. 65.
  7. Balmoral from the N. West. Page size: 50 x 69 cm, Photograph size: 23.5 x 43 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 7. On carrier sheet: Photographed by R. Fenton. Bottom, right, in pencil: H. No. 67.
  8. The Gathering at Braemar. Page size: 50 x 69 cm, Photograph size: 28 x 38.5 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 8. On carrier sheet: Photographed by R. Fenton. Bottom, right, in pencil: H. No. 72.
  9. Bridge at Castleton; Braemar. Page size: 50 x 69 cm, Photograph size: 34 x 43 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 9. On carrier sheet: Photographed by R. Fenton. Bottom, right, in pencil: H. No. 80.
  10. Windings of the Dee. Page size: 50 x 69 cm, Photograph size: 31 x 42.5 cm. 1856. Salt paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 10. Marked, bottom, left: R. Fenton – bottom, right: H. 61.
  11. Untitled [Orientalising model photograph, Frank Dillon] Page size: 59.5 x 44 cm, Photograph size: 27 x 19 cm. 1858. Albumin paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 11. On carrier sheet: Photographed by R. Fenton.
  12. Untitled [Water carrier woman] Page size: 69 x 50 cm, Photograph size: 26 x 21.5 cm. 1858. Albumin paper. ELTE EK. Press-mark: Photograph 12. On carrier sheet: Photographed by R. Fenton.
19th century British publications with photographic illustrations in the collection of University Library, Budapest
Elgin Marbles (1872)
     In addition to Roger Fenton’s valuable photographs, the collection of University Library, Budapest contains many 19th century Hungarian and foreign book rarities illustrated with photographs. These include an album issued in London in 1872, of 82 albumin photographs of the so-called Elgin marbles kept in the British Museum.
      The pieces of the collection consisting of friezes from the Parthenon temple built on the Athenian Acropolis in the middle of the 5th century B.C. and of sculptural decorations from other Greek temples were purchased by the Thomas Bruce (1766 – 1841), 7th Earl of Elgin, British Ambassador in Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire, from the Ottoman ruler having kept Greece under its supervision. The marble relics transported to England from 1803 to 1812 – mainly after the expiry of Elgin’s ambassador’s mandate – were purchased in 1816 by the British state for the British Museum, which has kept the collection to the present day.[8]
The officials in charge of the London museums recognised the role of photographs in the management of museum works of art and in data recording and scientific research already in the 1850s.[9]
The outside cover of the volume marked “Gd. Ívr., 44x 36 cm” features the title “British Museum. Elgin Marbles” in gilded letters, and the inside title page reads “British Museum. Grecian Antiquities. Photographed by Stephan Thompson. London: W. A. Mansell and Co., 2, Percy Street, W. 1872.” “Part IV. Vol. I.” on the title page indicates that the album of Stephen Thompson’s photographs was the 1st volume of the fourth part of the series. The Budapest album contains albumin photographs of various sizes, in vertical or horizontal format, untitled and without any narrative commentary, the majority of which renders the plasticity and artistic qualities of the statues and reliefs precisely and impressively.
The size of the entire series can be inferred from the pencilled serial numbers below the pictures, on the left side: the Budapest volume includes photographs No. 619-700; that is, the entire series must have consisted of more than 700 pictures, since if Part IV had a Vol. 1., it probably contained at least a Vol. 2. as well. Stephen Thompson took photographs not only for the publications of the British Museum,[10] but for other albums presenting the treasures of, occasionally foreign, collections.[11]
People of India (1868-1872)
     The provenance of “People of India", a six-volume edition in the collection of the University Library of Budapest, illustrated with 339 photographs and edited by J. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye[12], can be identified precisely on the basis of the dedication in the volumes and the relevant archival sources. The hand-written labels affixed in the first four volumes of the series kept in the Manuscripts and Rarities, Engravings Room read “Presented to the Library of the Pesth University by order of the Duke of Argyll. Secretary of State for India. India Museum, India Office. London March 1870.” The dedications are signed by J. Forbes Watson, one of the editors.
As is revealed by the contemporary register of the Library, the publication was donated by the British government to the University Library of Budapest thanks to the arduous efforts of the famous Orientalist, Ármin Vámbéry (1832-1913).[13] After his hard student years, Ármin Vámbéry (Wamberger), the son of a poor Jewish family[14], travelled to Constantinople in 1857. In March 1863, he joined a band of beggar pilgrims, disguised as beggar-dervish, and set out from Tehran to Central Asia to study the local dialects, customs and cultural relics. He returned from his journey, full of vicissitudes, to Tehran the same year. In Tehran, he received an official letter of recommendation from British Ambassador Sir Charles Allison, member of the European Colony, to Prime Minister Lord Palmerston and several distinguished London politicians and scientists. He returned to Pest in 1864, where he was received in a cool and reserved manner by the representatives of Hungarian scientific and political public life.[15]  He was received with more appreciation and attention in the same year in London where he held a presentation of his travel adventures at a session of the Royal Geographical Society, and got acquainted with several members of London society. His success in England was due, in addition to the accounts of his exotic adventures, spiced with anecdotic details, mainly to his being the first European to have brought reliable news and reports of the movements, political situation of the previously completely isolated Central Asian areas of Bukhara, Samarkand and Afghanistan, lying between India, under British supervision, and the ever-faster spreading Russia. “Travels in Central Asia” his travel book, was also published first in London, in 1864, whereas its Hungarian edition appeared one year later.
He was the personal friend of Lord Palmerston, he was introduced to the Prince of Wales, the future British monarch, and he got acquainted with Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton, the future Viceroy of India. He paid several visits later on to Germany, France and especially England, where he reported on his adventures in Asia at lecture tours in the countryside. He published several political articles in The Times and in leading London papers. His personal knowledge and experiences of Eastern Asia and his contacts established with the Turkish court later on were exploited by the leaders of British foreign policy: his name figures on the pension list of the British Foreign Office.
     The donor of the series presenting the peoples of India in the Budapest collection, George Douglas Campbell (1823 – 1900), 8th Duke of Argyll, a renown liberal politician and amateur geologist, member of Lord Palmerston’s first cabinet, was appointed Secretary of State for India in 1868. In this office, which he held until 1874, Lord Argyll introduced several administrative reforms in India.
     Although the scientific publication discussing the events of Vámbéry’s stay in England[16] makes no mention of his having known Lord Argyll personally, this is not impossible. Anyway, Vámbéry had personal contacts with India Office, which donated the six-volume photographic album to the Budapest library already at the end of the 1860s: “One of my friends who is close to the India Office wrote me that I would be amazed if I had been witness to the consternation which my second letter to The Times concerning the Afghan unrest had caused.”[17] – he wrote in 1871.
The first three volumes of the series donated to University Library, Budapest were published in 1868, the fourth in 1869 and the last two in 1872. The English-language dedication dated 1870 of course figures in the first four volumes only. The publication consisted of eight volumes altogether, the last of which was published in 1875, and the entire series contained more than 460 albumin photographs.[18]
As can be read in the introduction which describes the history of origin of the series, the British administration in India recognised the role of photography in topographic, architectural and ethnographic research very soon. Lord Canning, the first Viceroy of India (1856-1863) and his wife started to collect photographs taken by army officers sensitive to the new technique during their time in office, and after the administrative changes implemented following the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857-58, they actually encouraged the officers participating in the pacification of the various areas to record interesting topics. When the Viceroy’s collection of photographs became big enough to allow him to present the social stratification and culture of the various peoples of India, he decided to have an illustrated publication made. He sent the copies of the photographs to London, where new negatives were made of them, and then illustrations of the size required by the publication were reproduced. The editorial work – making use of the original descriptions annexed to the photographs – took place in the India Museum of London, under the supervision of  M. W. Gripps, Dr. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye.
The first volume starts with a list of the 15 officers who took the pictures and 19 who made the descriptions. There are only three overlaps, and many of the photographers and the authors of the descriptions are unknown.
Although the photographs in the volumes concerned represent different approaches, as opposed to the picturesque, romantic approach of contemporary European Orientalising photography propagated by Roger Fenton Károly Szathmáry Pap, among others, the overwhelming majority is clearly marked by an anthropological or ethnographic approach, i.e. the intention to introduce the ethnic and customs of the various ethnic groups living in India. This statement is true also of the group portraits taken in genre-painting-like settings: the main goal is the authentic presentation of the costumes, weapons, work tools, family relations, place in the social hierarchy of the depicted persons. The most beautiful of the few exceptions is a photography of a gentleman in noble garments, who gently poses his hand on the head of his daughter: the picture uses artistic means to express the close and intimate emotional relationship between the family members (Vol. VI., Photograph No. 312.).
One type of the photographs illustrating the six-volume series reflects an anthropological approach of some kind: in the close-ups, the depicted persons – mainly half-naked men – look into the camera with a stony glare (like people photographed for the records in modern police shots), the emphasis being put clearly on presenting their specific ethnic features (Vol. I., Photograph 1.). The term “aboriginal” below several pictures indicates a similar approach. Nevertheless, given their exotic nature and curiosity, these pictures – the same as those taken of aboriginals in loincloth, barefoot, spear or bow in hand (Vol. I., Photograph No. 21.) – must have suggested to the European viewers of the album also the idea of the historical gap between a technically developed modern, “civilised” society and an ancient, barbarian and primitive one.
     Another type of the portraits highlights the social status of the person concerned to drive the attention to the stratification of Indian society. The captions below the pictures of people dressed in ornamental robes or armed or adorned by other attributes serving as status indicators often says that they belong to a noble cast. Beside the traditional “tribal” costumes, signs, headdresses (Vol. I., Photograph No. 36.), we see also individual and group portraits taken in rooms that are elegantly furnished, in the European style. The take showing the members of the Indian royal family sitting in comfortable armchairs (“Moghuls. Mussulmans, of royal family of Delhi”, Vol. IV. , Photograph No. 197.), for example, highly resembles the representative photographs of the age taken of the European royal families, for example that of Queen Victoria.
In addition to the notability, the officers recorded also people from the lower social strata, of different religion – priests, Muslim legal scientists (Vol. IV., Photograph No. 198.), snake-charmer yogis (Vol. IV., Photograph No. 205.), fakirs, craftsmen, travelling tradesmen (Vol. III., Photographs No. 170,171.) and peasants. Some of the genre pictures of Vol. 4.  show people exercising their trade: bird-catchers (Photograph No. 190.), weavers (Photograph No. 191.), potters (Photograph No. 223.).

[1] All the Mighty World. The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852-1860. Catalogue by Gordon Baldwin, Malcolm Daniel & Sarah Greenough. New York & Washington, 2004.
[2] The collection of Roger Fentons in the Royal Photographic Society Collection was transferred to the National Museum of Photography Film & Television (Bradford) in 2002-2003. According to the records inherited from the Royal Photographic Society the Media Museum has 780 albumen and salt print photographs including 4 albums by Fenton. 
[3] Christopher Date – Anthony Hamber: The Origins of Photography at the British Museum, 1839-1860. In: History of Photography. Vol. 14. No. 4. 1990. 309-325.; Anthony J. Hamber: “A Higher Branch of the Art” Photographing the Fine Arts in England, 1839-1880. Amsterdam 1996, 363-393.
[4] Anton Mayer: Wiens Buchdrucker-Geschichte 1482-1882. Wien II. 1887. 173-174.; Anton Durstmüller: 500 Jahre Druck in Österreich. Band. I. 1482-1848. Wien, 1982. 279-281.; Frauke Kreutler: Sonnenlicht und Druckerschwärze. Paul Pretsch (1808-1873) und sein Beitrag zu den fotographischen Reproduktionsverfahren. In: Fotogeschichte. Jahrgang 24, 2004, Heft 93. 11-22.
[5] Photographic Collection of Albertina, Vienna. (Inv. Nr.: Foto2002/37/15; Foto2002/36/31)
[6] A Ghillie at Balmoral. National Media Museum, Bradford. Inv. No.: 2003-5001_2_21122. (2003-5000/3325.)
[7] Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Accession number: 1993.904.13. It is assumed that the photograph in the collection of Bradford Museum is the original of this one: Castleton Bridge, Braemar, Scotland. (With three men, one fishing, two in kilts) (2003-5000/3409, Box 17.)
[8] A. H. Smith: Lord Elgin and his Collection. In: Journal of Hellenic Studies. XXXVI. 1916. 163-327.; J. Rothenberg: Descensus ad Terram, the Acquisitions and Reception of the Elgin Marbles. New york, London, 1977.; W.S. Clair: Lord Elgin and the Marbles. London 1998.; D. Williams: „Of publick utility and publick property”: Lord Elgin and the Parthenon Sculptures. In: Athena Tsingarida – Donna Kurtz (ed.): Appropriating Antiquity - Saisir l’Antique. Collections et collectionneurs d’antiques en Belgique et en Grande-Bretagne au XIXè siècle. Bruxelles 2002, 103-164.
[9] Anthony J. Hamber: “A Higher Branch of the Art” Photographing the Fine Arts in England, 1839-1880. Amsterdam, 1996.
[10] Gems of Dutch Art. Twelve photographs by Stephen Thompson from ... engravings in the British Museum selected with descriptive letterpress by G. W. Reid.. London, 1872.; Chefs d’œuvre of Art and Masterpieces of Engraving selected from the ... collection of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. London, 1873. 
[11] The Castellani Collection: a series of photographs by S. Thompson. 1874.; Masterpieces of Antique Art. Twenty-Five Examples in Permanent Photography from the Celebrated Collections in the Vatican, the Louvre and the British Museum, by Stephen Thompson…London, 1878. stb.
[12] The People of India. A Series of Photographic Illustrations, with descriptive Letterpress, the Races and Tribes of Hindustan, originally prepared under the Authority of the Government of India, and reproduced by Order of the Secretary of State for India in Counsil. Edited by J. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye. London: India Museum, Wm. H. Allen and Co, 13, Waterloo Place, S.W. Publishers to the India Office. Volume 1-6. 1868-72.
[13] ELTE University Library and Archives, Archives of University Library, Budapest, Register 1. (October 1865 – December 1870) 1870/84, 1870/93. (Exact place of the documents unknown.)
[14] Ármin Vámbéry: Küzdelmeim (Struggles in my life). Dunaszerdahely, 2001.; György Hazai: Ármin Vámbéry. Budapest, 1976.; Vámbéry Ármin emlékezete (In memoriam Ármin Vámbéry). Kőrösi Csoma Society, Budapest, 1986 [Keleti értekezések (Eastern papers) 2]
[15] The Hungarian Academy of Sciences, on the other hand, elected him a corresponding member already in 1860 – his photograph can be found in the Album of the Academy of Sciences compiled by Ignácz Schrecker in 1865. Magyar Akadémiai Album (Album of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia ünnepélyes megnyitásának emlékéül (In memoriam the ceremonial opening of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences). 1865. From the photographic workshop, Pest, of Ignácz Schrecker. Photograph No.69.
[16] Lory Alder – Richard Dalby: The dervish of Windsor Castle. The life of Arminius Vambery. London, 1979.
[17] Alder – Dalby. i.m. 1979. 275.
[18] Christopher Pinney: Camera Indica: The social life of Indian photographs. London, 1997. 33-45.; N. Schadeva: Imperial Vision: Photography in British India, 1857-1900. An essay with select sources. In:

Photographs of Roger Fenton: